(P64) Survival of the marginalized: a critical debate on gender mainstreaming policy, state and human rights in Indonesia
Wed 11:00-12:30 K14 | 2.05
- Fanny Syariful Alam Bandung School of Peace Indonesia
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Assessment of the Indonesian Policy on Implementing UNSCR 1325 on the Protection and Empowerment of Women in Social Conflict
Sartika Soesilowati Airlangga UNiversity
Wida Ayu Puspitosari Universitas Brawijaya
This study aims to examine an effort by the Indonesian government to protect and to empower women in social conflict. How and to what extent are the Indonesian government’s policies able to provide protection and to empower women in social conflict? The United Nations (UN), through resolution UNSCR 1325, has encouraged states to provide protection and to empower women in resolving conflicts. There is an urgency to pay special attention to women in conflict because there is an impact of unique gender based on women. Women and children often dominate victims of conflict. Indonesia is still facing multiple social conflicts which have not been resolved sustainably driven by various problems and motivations, such as beliefs, ideology, the economy, environment, and politics. As a result of economic progress and social tensions, this country expect severe potential social strife conflict in the future. It is perceived that women (and children) in Indonesia are dominant as victims of social conflicts, and they have not yet received proper and fair protection and empowerment. To respond to the UN calls to improve infrastructure to protect and empower women in social conflicts, the Indonesian government has issued a series of regulations and national planning. However, it is argued that there are various fundamental problems and challenges in implementing these policies. Some of the problems, including those related to the willingness and lack of capacity of local government officials in mainstreaming gender in their policies and its program.
Exploring the role of Indonesian LGBT people in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: Building prestasi through charitable work
Diego Garcia Rodriguez University of Sussex
On March 2, 2020, Indonesian President Joko Widodo announced the first two cases of COVID-19 in the country. This was followed by an increasing infection rate, which led Indonesia to become the nation with the most COVID-19 cases and highest fatality rate in the whole Southeast Asian region. In the midst of the crisis, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals living in the archipelago began to organise to provide support to those in need in several locations, from Java to Flores.
Academic discussions and media articles have used the term ‘moral panic’ to describe the start of a series of unprecedented anti-LGBT attacks in Indonesia occurring since 2016. These attacks have included statements made by government officials and politicians against the LGBT community as well as physical violence. Despite this anti-LGBT rhetoric, sexual minorities in the country have found strategies to fight for the promotion of their social inclusion and defend their rights in ways that challenge common ‘Western’ discourses of activism. In this case, prestasi, a term defined as ‘achievements’ or ‘success’, arises as a source of empowerment and inclusion through the engagement in good deeds that have a positive impact on society.
This presentation explores how the social work of LGBT Indonesians during the COVID-19 pandemic illustrates the contribution made by individuals who are often represented by local media as either ‘anti-Indonesian’ or against religious values. Engaging with other vulnerable populations at the local level, LGBT individuals have aimed to support to those in need. Additionally, this contribution has also helped them to build relationships with citizens who have never met LGBT people. This, therefore, has led to increased acceptance and social harmony reducing discrimination and exclusion by perceiving each other as equals.
Gender Mainstreaming in Covid-19 Response Policy-Making for Women Household Heads: A Case Study In Indonesia
Rizky Septiana Widyaningtyas Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
The pandemic that occurred in the last 2 (two) years has had a distinctive impact on women, which was exacerbated by the existence of gender inequality. The Rapid Gender Assessment (RGA) by UN Women shows that more than 15% of women lost their jobs and 41% were facing reduced paid working hours. The Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection found that one of the impacts of the pandemic on women is an increase in unpaid care work and an increase in gender-based violence. The increase in the number of cases of violence against women throughout 2020 was confirmed through research conducted by Komnas Perempuan. Women household heads have multiple levels of vulnerability to violence and discrimination. Women household heads are the name for women who carry out their roles and responsibilities as breadwinners, household managers, maintaining the continuity of life, family, and decision-makers in the family. Women become heads of families for various reasons including husbands passing away, divorced, being left behind, not or unmarried, polygamous husbands, husbands who are migrants, husbands who are permanently ill, and husbands who do not work. The occurrence of the Covid-19 Pandemic made women’s household heads even worse. Apart from being the person in charge of family support, women household heads also have to carry out domestic obligations at home, such as household chores, caring for children, including accompanying children to study. The government needs to provide affirmative action for women household heads to help them survive the pandemic. Emergency regulations and policies made by the government to respond to the Covid-19 pandemic have the potential to have specific effects on women household heads, but at the same time also give hope for affirmations to women household heads. PEKKA (Women-Headed Household Empowerment) is a grassroots women’s organization whose work focus is to empower and advocate for women household heads in Indonesia. Through the PEKKA union, women household heads take collective action, including empowering themselves to survive pandemic situations and to respond to government policies. This paper analyzes: first, to what extent gender mainstreaming in the making of policies on Covid-19 countermeasures by the Indonesian government affirms women household heads; and second, identify PEKKA women’s initiatives to survive a pandemic and how they respond to government policies. This research uses a socio-legal approach.
Social Capital As Survival Ability Of Indonesian Migrant Worker In Hong Kong
Anggaunitakiranantika Ewha Womans University
Transnational migration carried out by Indonesian women today is a social transformation in labor participation. This phenomenon is also found in the lives of women who decide to become migrant workers who work in Hong Kong as the destination country. This study aims analyzing and identifying the self-actualized survival ability of Indonesian migrant workers in Hong Kong. In addition, this study also analyzes the social capital used by Indonesian migrant workers in Hong Kong. Applied descriptive qualitative as research methods by using an interpretive approach, purposive sampling was technique for collecting data on nine Indonesian women migrant workers who were conducted in May 2019 to January 2020, located in Tsim Tsa Shui, Kowloon district, Hong Kong. By applying the concept of social capital from Fukuyama, Result of this study are the existence of migrant workers network still in the
circle of relatives and families becomes social capital. Social capital owned by Indonesian migrant workers is known composed of three main elements, firstly, trust in the form of social security to support the continuity of existence for Indonesian migrant workers who are in Hong Kong, especially when facing problems. The second element is reciprocal (reciprocity), which is based on the economic shortages experienced and the common feeling and experience of being migrant worker in Hong Kong. The last element is social interaction, which prioritize practical and economically ways by choosing the nearest melting pot from patron residence and using social media for communicating each other.
The poor’s social resilience in Rural Java
Anik Susanti Universitas Brawijaya
Social resilience is the ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political and environmental change. In the context of rural Java at Indonesia, female peasant are the marginalized groups encountering environmental change caused by both natural and non natural disaster. For example, in Probolinggo Regency female peasant have been surviving from destructive effect of volcano eruption and Covid-19 at the same time. Nevertheless, they do not fall into total suffering because they have social mechanism to overcome crisis situation and reduce poverty. They have been enhancing adaptability with unique behaviour. Hence, the concept of social resilience can be rethought in related to it’s relevance to recently situation and gender perspective.
Transwomen’s Survival Struggle under the Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: a Supportive Way through Collaboration with Relevant Networks in Bandung, West Java
Fanny Syariful Alam Bandung School of Peace Indonesia
Wida Ayu Puspitosari Universitas Brawijaya
The Covid-19 pandemic has deteriorated various sectors, one of which is economy where most people in the world are still working hard to survive due to the ongoing uncertainty. A number of WHO recommended applicable health protocols as well as every country’s economy policy demonstrate their existing seriousness to anticipate more developing issues for any class of society with no exceptions. One of the most impacted society groups from the pandemic, particularly in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, is transwomen. The current circumstance results their vulnerability in economy due to their inability to survive from most of their informal jobs for their life. In addition, their tension escalates because of attempting to survive for both health and economy. Gradually, their condition improves fortuitously by relying on a support system created by society group solidarity involving relevant networks. The social collaboration allows most of the networks and personals’ concerns to support the group through various aids, such as finance, food staples, and free health care services. This fact demonstrates the success of a solidarity movement to support each other as a social capital in terms of supporting minority groups.
COVID 19 pandemic seriously escalates negative impacts for most of sectors, particularly highlighting the condition of human rights in Indonesia. The reduction of international human rights principles under this circumstance does not benefit some marginalized groups, one of which relies on discriminated gender identities, such as women and others, as an example
LGBT, who are particularly informal workers. Various hurdles among them illustrate how their burdens during the pandemic increase, as they are before attributed as vulnerable groups, mainly in Indonesia where the enforcement of human rights principles remains undervalued. On the other hand, the struggle against discrimination towards them takes place quite
intensely. Therefore, throughout the Indonesian context in deliberating the handling of human rights principle degradation towards gender issues, we observe various ways regarding the examination on minorities of gender might reinstate their position to accomplish equality and social justice under the pandemic situation. Giving the notion that pandemic and gender issues are interweaved, debates are likely to occur to argue since this issue emerges from numerous perspectives. However it turns out on underlining how minorities of gender struggle, how media literally frame them as well as their conditions, what
multiple burdens they have on the stake, what they undertake for managing their conditions all under the pandemic circumstance in which the government tend not to concern thoroughly. By approaching this outlook as critical focal point of identity and power, this session explores the extent to which gender-mainstreaming is politically considered in the policy making.